A continuum of required and elective APPEs is of the scope, intensity and duration required to support the achievement of the Educational Outcomes articulated in Standards 1–4 and within Appendix 2 to prepare practice-ready graduates.
APPEs integrate, apply, reinforce and advance the knowledge, skills, attitudes, abilities and behaviors developed in the pre-APPE curriculum and in co-curricular activities.
Students provide advanced clinical pharmacy services, under the supervision of a pharmacy preceptor, in various medical sub-specialty environments designed to build on the previous academic experience. Goals of these experiences are development of independent judgment and the integration of fundamental knowledge with clinical applications.
During the entire fourth professional year, students continue to learn by participating in a variety of rotations. Students are required to complete at least seven rotations totaling a minimum of 1,440 hours. With at least two being core inpatient rotations (one general medicine and another in health systems pharmacy) and two core outpatient rotations (one community rotation and one ambulatory clinical rotation), along with a minimum of three elective experiences or additional core rotations. The core rotations are required to be a minimum of 160 hours.
Rotational experiences are site specific with each rotation set up as its own course with either school provided, or preceptor established, goals and objectives and assignments. This allows the preceptor and student the opportunity to engage in an enriching and meaningful rotational experience.
While on rotations, our fourth-year students are not in a traditional classroom setting, therefore our preceptors serve as their primary educators. This allows preceptors to have significant positive impact on our future health care professionals by providing direct student feedback and tailoring specific rotation activities and projects for the benefit of the students and the site.
Community pharmacy (core)
A community rotation provides the student with direct drug distribution and counseling activities. There may also be clinical activities going on concurrently, however the main objective of this type of rotation is to dispense medications in a safe and timely manner following all legal and regulatory requirements of the site/state. Practice management will also be emphasized.
Ambulatory patient care (core)
An outpatient clinical rotation that provides the student with direct patient care activities. The student is also expected to actively participate as part of an interprofessional team. Depending on the actual site there may also be dispensing activities going on concurrently, however the main objective of this type of rotation is to provide medication therapy management and education for patients’ chronic diseases.
Inpatient general medicine patient care (core)
A general medicine rotation provides the student with direct patient care experience in the inpatient setting utilizing a rounding service. The student will manage a diverse patient population with a variety of common conditions seen in adult care patients. The student will also actively contribute as a member of an interprofessional healthcare team.
Hospital/health-system pharmacy (core)
The purpose of this rotation is for the student to understand how the right medication gets to the right patient at the right time. This usually includes exposure to the drug distribution system, IV admixture preparation, controlled substance management, inventory control, among others. The focus is on system-management and continuous quality improvement.
Elective APPEs are meant to allow students to explore areas of potential practice interest. This may include practice, research, or other areas of interest for pharmacy students. An elective may include a repeat of the core rotations listed above.
In general core rotations must expose students a patient population that exhibits diversity in ethnic and/or socioeconomic culture, medical conditions, gender, and age.